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Formal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty
VickyPostpt 5 Gru 2014, 22:07
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sob 15 Lut 2014, 11:00
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

W szkole karzą nam pisać nudne formalne listy, w których trzeba stosować równie "nudne" i rzadko spotykane w mowie potocznej słowa i zwroty 😡 . Mam propozycję: zbierzmy je w tym wątku ❗

Ja zacznę od mojego ulubionego czyli słówka "nevertheless" (despite what has just been said or referred to). Tłumaczenia na polski: niemniej, niemniej jednak, tym niemniej, jednakże, jednak, wszakże, pomimo tego / to.

Kilka przykładów w zdaniach:

It's a difficult race. Nevertheless, about 1,000 runners participate every year.
Alexander II was an obscure but nevertheless interesting Scottish king.
There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law. Nevertheless, it is important that we try.
Our defeat was expected but it is disappointing nevertheless.
The old system had its flaws, but nevertheless it was preferable to the new one.
What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.
I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting nevertheless.

adminPostsob 6 Gru 2014, 17:05
admin
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pon 6 Wrz 2010, 15:46
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

Fajny pomysł ❗ Będę wrzucał pliki dźwiękowe z wymową słówek, które będziecie podawać 🙂 .

nevertheless [ˌnevə(r)ðəˈles]

alinaPostsob 6 Gru 2014, 22:26
Alina
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pon 29 Lip 2013, 15:36
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

Synonimem (rzadziej używanym) "nevertheless" jest słówko "nonetheless".

The book is too long but, nonetheless, informative and entertaining.
The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall need to tackle them soon.
The region was extremely beautiful. Nonetheless Gerard could not imagine spending the rest of his life there.
The paintings are complex, but have plenty of appeal nonetheless.
He was extremely rude in meetings. Nonetheless, his arguments found some support.
There are serious problems in our country. Nonetheless, we feel this is a good time to return.

nonetheless [ˌnʌnðəˈles]

asiekPostnie 7 Gru 2014, 19:07
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pt 9 Sie 2013, 15:53
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

W szkole miałam te dwa słówka jak dla potrzeb pisania rozprawki uczyliśmy się przyznawać słuszność jednej tezie i jednocześnie stawiać kontrargument dla niej. Np. pamiętam takie zdanie:

It can / could be argued that the movie is too long. It is nevertheless / nonetheless an intriguing piece of cinema.

Chyba ten zwrot "it can / could be argued that" można zaliczyć do formalnych? Tłumaczenie na polski: można (by) się spierać / sprzeczać / dyskutować / polemizować / argumentować / uzasadniać / dowodzić / (s)twierdzić / utrzymywać / przyjąć / uznać że/czy. Generalnie chodzi o to, że na dany temat są różne opinie, zdania są podzielone itp.

Kilka innych przykładów użycia tego zwrotu w zdaniu:

It could be argued that laws are made by and for men.
It could be argued that a dam might actually increase the risk of flooding.
It can be argued that the proposed law should be defeated.
It can be argued that uccessful economies are those with the lowest taxes.

robsonPostpon 8 Gru 2014, 17:38
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śr 7 Sie 2013, 14:42
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

W podobnym kontekście można używać zwrotu "it remains to be seen whether..." = jeszcze się okaże / dopiero się okaże / czas pokaże / pozostaje tylko przekonać się / jeszcze zobaczymy, czy... itp.

Na przykład:

It remains to be seen whether these two movies herald a new era of westerns, but but there is no doubt that they represent welcome additions to the genre.

Zwróćcie w tym zdaniu też uwagę na zwrot kontrargumentujący "but there is no doubt that..." (ale bez wątpienia).

Inne przykłady:

It remains to be seen whether the heating system is really fixed or will have to be replaced.
It remains to be seen whether the operation was successful.
The path has been tortuous and difficult, but there is no doubt that significant progress has been made.

myszaPostwt 9 Gru 2014, 16:07
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pon 5 Sie 2013, 16:48
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

Kolejne formalne słówko: "furthermore" - co więcej, ponadto, poza tym, oprócz tego, w dodatku (in addition to what has just been stated).

Słówko to nawiązuje do poprzedniego kontekstu wypowiedzi i wprowadza nową informację na omawiany już temat.

Przykłady:

Mr Brown has earned the respect of farmers everywhere. Furthermore, they know they can trust him.
He said he had not discussed the matter with her. Furthermore, he had not even contacted her.
Research has shown that first-language development is not impeded by exposure to a second language. Furthermore, there is no evidence to support the claim that children find bilingual education confusing.
He is old and unpopular. Furthermore, he has at best only two years of political life ahead of him.
I suggest we use Barkers as our main suppliers - they're good and furthermore they're cheap.

furthermore [ˌfɜːðəˈmɔː(r)]

angiePostśr 10 Gru 2014, 20:32
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czw 22 Sie 2013, 10:44
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

Synonimem "furthermore" jest też formalne "moreover" (used for introducing an additional and important fact that supports or emphasizes what you have just said).

A talented artist, he was, moreover, a writer of some note.
Studies suggest that bilingual children find it easier to learn additional languages. There is, moreover, increasing evidence that bilingual children perform better across a range of school subjects, not just foreign languages.
His claim that children find bilingual education confusing is based on very little evidence. Moreover, the evidence he does provide is seriously flawed.
More and more people are opposed to the idea of increasing university fees. Moreover, there is now evidence that it discourages many students from coming to the UK.
The rent is reasonable and, moreover, the location is perfect.
The source of the information is irrelevant. Moreover, the information need not be confidential.
The whole report is badly written. Moreover, it's inaccurate.

moreover [mɔːrˈəʊvə(r)]

haniaPostczw 11 Gru 2014, 17:33
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śr 25 Wrz 2013, 21:18
Bardzo gorący tematFormal English czyli formalne angielskie słówka i zwroty

Hence - stąd, więc, dlatego, z tego powodu, w związku z tym, skutkiem tego, przeto, toteż (used for introducing something that is a result of the fact that has just been stated).

Mniej formalnym synonimem tego słówka jest "therefore".

We suspect they are trying to hide something, hence the need for an independent inquiry.
Eating habits formed in childhood tend to continue into adult life, hence the importance of encouraging healthy eating from an early age.
Crime is on the increase; hence the need for more police.
His grandfather was Greek; hence the surname.
Alcohol can cause liver failure and hence death.
The cost of transport is a major expense for an industry. Hence factory location is an important consideration.
His mother was Italian, hence his name - Luca.
The purse is handmade and hence very expensive.

hence [hens]

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